I didn't read all of this thread but all I can say, I'm good on the diabetes issue and it's epidemic. Last visit to doc and labs done, glucose was coming in higher, so we both agreed Berberine would be good to take to lower the glucose, so that is in my routine now....and have CUT OUT refined sugars and carbs big time ... My family missed diabetes and they and me were carb and sugar eaters for decades.... I guess genetics has a lot in this too. Also, I do labs non fasting so that could and probably does factor in. So I look at that too.